Ethernet is a family of technologies used in local networks (LAN). The performance varies from the original standard of 10 Mbit / s, up to the latest Gigabit Ethernet technologies that are capable of data transfer at speeds above 1000 Mbit / sec.
The interoperability of different components is ensured by the relevant standards (IEEE 802.5), which are maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. The physical medium of data transmission is most commonly twisted copper pairs or optical fiber cables. Other devices, including hubs, bridges and routers are needed to perform a complete system.
Ethernet technologies, as defined by IEEE 802.5, are used in most local daytime networks. The first specifications charged a data transfer rate of 10 Mbit / sec. The enhanced data rates followed, Fast Ethernet describes the systems capable of 100 Mbit / sec transfer rates and Gigabit Ethernet describes systems that can operate more than 1 Gbit / sec (1000 Mbit / sec).
Versions 1 and 10 Gbit / sec technology have already been deployed quite largely on the ground. More advanced technologies of 40 and 100 Gbit / sec are at an advanced stage of development. Standards for these have been ratified in June 2010.
The most commonly used physical media are twisted copper and optical fiber pairs. Optical fibers benefit from higher data rates and larger range, and are safe from all electrical interference. High performance networks often have twisted wire pairs connecting the computer of each user to the network, the fiber optic cables being used to form the spine of the site.
Local network systems also contain many other devices, such as hubs, bridges and routers. The hubs are largely obsolete, but can be seen in many older systems and can always be manufactured and provided for supporting these systems. New systems, including Gigabit systems, will have devices such as bridges, which connect segments together to form a network and routers, which connect networks together.